Climate Change

Climate change is no longer a theory but an indisputable fact: the global average temperature rises mainly due to the observed increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases as a result of emissions from human activities. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events has increased and their characteristics have changed. Continental ice melts due to the rise in temperature, resulting in the global average sea level rising.
The most alarming climatic changes affecting sea level are the eustatic ones which arerelated to the rise in temperature, the reduction of continental ice cover and water transfer from underground aquifers to the sea (IPCC, 2013). These changes can create long and significant elevations of the sea level.
The sea level rise, both in the long run and in the short term, threatens the beaches with significant retreat or even their disappearance. Since 1900, the global average sea level has increased by about 0.2 m. However, future projections for the rise in sea level by 2100 are uncertain as studies show an increase of 0.26 – 0.82 m (IPCC, 2013) to 0.7-2.4 m (Rohling et al., 2008).
The impacts due to the coastal decline are both economic and social and can be devastating for the local community as well as the country.
In this context the protection and mitigation against the impacts of climate change and sea level rise is extremely important. The beaches are threatened with their complete disappearance and their management at the present will judge their viability in the future. The study of erosion and coastal protection is a necessary step for their preservation and protection.